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ID: 104
Category: Virus
CreatedBy: 1
UpdatedBy: 1
createdon: 15 Jan 2023
updatedon: 03 Apr 2023

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Author: Khoa Tran
Published Jan 15, 2023
Updated Apr 03, 2023

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Yellow Fever

History of Yellow Fever

The first recorded outbreak of yellow fever occurred in the Yucatan Peninsula of Mexico in 1648, where it was referred to as "vomito negro" or black vomit. The disease spread rapidly throughout the Caribbean and South America, and by the 18th century, it had become a major public health concern in many port cities.

It was not until the late 19th century that the causative agent of yellow fever was discovered. In 1900, Dr. Walter Reed, a U.S. Army physician, was assigned to lead a commission to investigate the cause of yellow fever in Havana, Cuba, where an outbreak was raging. Reed's team conducted experiments on human volunteers to test the hypothesis that the disease was transmitted by mosquitoes.

Through a series of experiments, the team conclusively demonstrated that yellow fever was transmitted by the Aedes aegypti mosquito. They also showed that individuals who recovered from yellow fever were immune to future infections, which led to the development of a vaccine.

Following the discovery of the transmission mechanism of yellow fever, mosquito control measures were implemented in many parts of the world, which greatly reduced the incidence of the disease. A vaccine was also developed in the early 20th century, which has been highly effective in preventing the spread of yellow fever.

Modern Understanding of Yellow Fever

Yellow Fever is a type of hemorrhagic fever, which is a group of diseases that cause severe bleeding and damage to the liver and kidneys. The virus can lead to jaundice, a yellowing of the skin and eyes, as well as bleeding from the mouth, nose, and other parts of the body. In severe cases, Yellow Fever can cause kidney and liver failure, leading to death.

The symptoms of yellow fever can range from mild to severe, and can include fever, headache, muscle aches, nausea and vomiting. 

The best way to protect yourself from Yellow Fever is through vaccination. Yellow fever epidemiology, control, and vaccine production are all important aspects of preventing the spread of the disease. In addition to vaccination, mosquito control is another key factor in preventing the spread of Yellow Fever.

Yellow Fever is most common in Africa and South America, and outbreaks of the disease have been reported in these regions. So if a person has visited these places recently and show the symptoms mentioned in this article, then bring this up to your doctor right away. 

To help control the spread of Yellow Fever, public health officials closely monitor the disease through surveillance and tracking efforts. Researchers also study the molecular epidemiology and evolution of Yellow Fever to better understand how it spreads and evolves over time.

Symptoms of Yellow Fever can appear 3 to 6 days after infection and may include fever, headache, muscle pain, and a fast heartbeat. In severe cases, symptoms can progress to jaundice, bleeding, and kidney and liver failure. A diagnosis of Yellow Fever is typically made through blood tests, and there is currently no specific treatment for the disease.

Causes of Yellow Fever

Yellow Fever is a serious and potentially deadly virus that is spread by mosquitoes. The virus, known as Yellow fever virus (YFV), is typically transmitted through the bite of an infected Aedes aegypti mosquito.

Treatments for Yellow Fever

To prevent Yellow Fever, it is important to avoid mosquito bites and to get vaccinated. If you are traveling to an area where Yellow Fever is prevalent, make sure to get vaccinated and take precautions to avoid mosquito bites. This can be done by using mosquito repellent, wearing long-sleeved shirts and pants, and staying indoors during times when mosquitoes are most active. A vaccine is also available that can protect you against yellow fever.

If you have symptoms of Yellow Fever, it is important to seek medical attention right away. 

The CDC has published a list of countries that are currently at high risk of yellow fever: https://wwwnc.cdc.gov/travel/yellowbook/2020/travel-related-infectious-diseases/yellow-fever#table423

Symptoms

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Yellowing of skin and eyes (jaundice)
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Dark colored urine/pee
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Red eyes / bloodshot eyes
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Fever
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Chills
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Headache
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Muscle Weakness
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Nausea
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Vomiting
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Fatigue
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Coma

Confirmation Tests

- Blood test

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