ID: 123
Category: Heart condition
CreatedBy: 1
UpdatedBy: 1
createdon: 01 Feb 2023
updatedon: 04 Apr 2023

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Author: Khoa Tran
Published Feb 01, 2023
Updated Apr 04, 2023

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Etymology and Pronunciation

myocarditis (my-uh-kahr-DYE-tis)
myo- - Greek for "muscle"
kardia - Greek for "heart"
-itis - Greek for "inflammation"

History of Myocarditis

The earliest reports of myocarditis date back to the early 1800s, when physicians described cases of heart inflammation in patients who had died from unknown causes. However, it was not until the late 1800s and early 1900s that the underlying cause of myocarditis began to be investigated.

One of the key figures in the study of myocarditis was German physician Paul Ehrlich, who in 1889 discovered that certain dyes could selectively stain specific types of cells in the body. This led to the development of new techniques for studying tissue samples, including heart tissue, and allowed researchers to identify inflammatory cells and other abnormalities in the heart muscle.

In the early 1900s, researchers began to investigate the role of infectious agents in myocarditis. In 1900, American physician William Osler described a case of myocarditis that was associated with diphtheria, and subsequent studies confirmed that many cases of myocarditis were caused by viral, bacterial, or fungal infections.

Modern Understanding of Myocarditis

Myocarditis is a condition that affects the heart muscle and is caused by inflammation. This condition can be caused by various factors including viral, bacterial, fungal, or autoimmune causes.  In some cases, the cause of myocarditis is unknown (idiopathic). Myocarditis can lead to a form of heart disease known as cardiomyopathy and can present with symptoms such as chest pain, shortness of breath, fatigue, rapid or irregular heartbeat, lightheadedness, fainting, and swelling in the legs, ankles, or feet.

Symptoms of myocarditis can range from mild to severe and may include chest pain, shortness of breath, fatigue, and a rapid or irregular heartbeat. In some cases, myocarditis may also cause heart failure, in which the heart is unable to pump enough blood to meet the body's needs.

Diagnosis of myocarditis is typically done through various tests including electrocardiogram (ECG), echocardiogram, cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and cardiac biopsy. Blood tests and viral cultures may also be used to determine the cause of the inflammation.

Causes of Myocarditis

Myocarditis can be caused by a variety of factors, including viral, bacterial, or fungal infections, autoimmune disorders, exposure to certain toxins or chemicals, reactions to certain medications, and some genetic or inherited conditions. In many cases, the exact cause of myocarditis is unknown.

Treatments for Myocarditis

Treatment for myocarditis depends on the underlying cause and can include antiviral medications, corticosteroids, immunosuppressive drugs, heart transplant, implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD), pacemaker, and anticoagulant therapy.

In addition to medical treatment, lifestyle changes such as changes to diet, exercise, and stress management can help improve symptoms and manage myocarditis. Supportive care such as oxygen and medication may also be necessary to manage symptoms and prevent further complications.

It is important to seek medical attention if you experience symptoms of myocarditis as early diagnosis and treatment can improve outcomes and prevent serious complications. Additionally, avoiding risk factors such as viral infections, alcohol consumption, and drug abuse can help reduce the risk of developing myocarditis.


Chest pain
Shortness of breath
Swelling in the legs, ankles, or abdomen
Fainting / loss of consciousness
Weak pulse / low blood pressure

Confirmation Tests

- Blood test
- Electrocardiogram (ECG)
- X-rays
- Echocardiogram
- Biopsy

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