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ID: 125
Category: Neurological Disorder
CreatedBy: 1
UpdatedBy: 1
createdon: 01 Feb 2023
updatedon: 04 Apr 2023

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Author: Khoa Tran
Published Feb 01, 2023
Updated Apr 04, 2023

Table of contents

Multiple Sclerosis

Etymology and Pronunciation

Sclerosis (skluh-roh-sis)
sklerosis - Greek for "hardness" or "induration"

History of Multiple Sclerosis

Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is characterized by inflammation, demyelination, and damage to the myelin sheaths that protect nerve fibers, leading to various neurological symptoms.

The history of MS can be traced back to the mid-19th century when a French neurologist named Jean-Martin Charcot first described the disease as a distinct clinical entity. He observed a group of patients with a set of symptoms that included muscle weakness, tremors, and difficulty with coordination, among others. He named the condition "sclérose en plaques" which translates to "hardening of the plaques" referring to the scarring of the myelin sheaths that he observed in the brains of some patients upon autopsy.

After Charcot's initial description, other neurologists and physicians started to report cases of MS, and the disease became more widely recognized. In the early 20th century, the British neurologist W.R. Gowers provided a more detailed clinical description of the disease and coined the term "multiple sclerosis" to reflect the multiple areas of damage that could occur in the nervous system.

In the following decades, researchers made significant progress in understanding the pathophysiology of MS, including the role of the immune system in attacking the myelin sheaths. The development of imaging techniques such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) allowed for better visualization of MS lesions in the brain and spinal cord, leading to earlier diagnosis and treatment.

Modern Understanding of Multiple Sclerosis

Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is a chronic autoimmune disease that affects the central nervous system, which includes the brain and spinal cord. It is a disorder that affects the protective covering (myelin) around nerve fibers in the brain and spinal cord, causing inflammation and damage. This damage to the myelin causes a condition known as demyelination, which interferes with the normal functioning of the nerve fibers. This causes multiple scars/lesions to nerves (thus the origin of the name - multiple sclerosis, multiple scars). The damage disrupts the flow of information between the brain and the rest of the body, leading to a range of symptoms and disabilities.

The symptoms of MS can vary greatly, depending on the extent and location of the damage to the myelin. Some common symptoms include numbness or tingling in the limbs, weakness in the limbs, muscle spasms, vision problems, fatigue, dizziness, trouble with coordination and balance, slurred speech, cognitive impairment, depression, urinary problems, and sexual dysfunction. Pain is also a common symptom of MS.

Some people with MS experience only mild symptoms, while others may experience severe disability and require assistance with daily activities. The course of the disease can also vary, with some people experiencing relapses and remissions, while others have a steady progression of symptoms over time.

Diagnosis of MS is made by a combination of symptoms, medical history, physical examination, and results from tests such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), evoked potentials, and cerebrospinal fluid analysis. The specific cause of MS is still unknown, but it is thought to involve a combination of genetic and environmental factors.

Causes of Multiple Sclerosis

The exact cause of multiple sclerosis (MS) is not fully understood, but it is believed to be an autoimmune disorder. Some research suggests that genetic factors, environmental factors, and viral infections may also play a role in the development of MS.

Treatments for Multiple Sclerosis

There is currently no cure for MS, but several treatments are available that can help manage symptoms and slow the progression of the disease. Some common treatments include medications such as interferon beta, glatiramer acetate, natalizumab, fingolimod, teriflunomide, dimethyl fumarate, alemtuzumab, and ocrelizumab. Rehabilitation through physical and occupational therapy can also help improve mobility, reduce pain, and improve overall quality of life for people with MS.

Living with MS can be challenging, but many people with the condition lead full and productive lives with the right support and care. Ongoing research is aimed at developing new and more effective treatments for MS, and at improving the lives of people with this disease.

Symptoms

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Muscle stiffness
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Uncontrollable shakes / Tremors
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Difficulty seeing
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Blurred vision
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Double vision
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Muscle Weakness
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Muscle spasms
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Numbness in fingers and toes
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Slurred speech
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Fatigue

Confirmation Tests

- Blood test
- Spinal fluid analysis
- MRI
- Evoked potential tests

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