ID: 141
Category: Virus
CreatedBy: 1
UpdatedBy: 1
createdon: 07 Feb 2023
updatedon: 05 Apr 2023

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Author: Khoa Tran
Published Feb 07, 2023
Updated Apr 05, 2023

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Etymology and Pronunciation

Hepatitis (hep-uh-TY-tis)
hepar - Greek for "liver"
-itis - Greek for "inflammation"

History of Hepatitis

The first known description of an epidemic of hepatitis was in 1885, when a physician named Hippolyte Morestin reported an outbreak of the disease in the French Army during the Franco-Chinese War. The disease was referred to as "infectious jaundice" and it was thought to be caused by a bacterium.

In the early 20th century, researchers began to explore the viral causes of hepatitis. In 1947, Dr. Baruch Blumberg discovered a new antigen in the blood of an Australian aborigine, which he named the "Australia antigen". He later discovered that the antigen was a marker for a new strain of hepatitis, which became known as hepatitis B.

In the following decades, additional strains of hepatitis were discovered, including hepatitis A, which was identified in 1973, and hepatitis C, which was discovered in 1989. Hepatitis D and E were also discovered in the 1970s and 1980s, respectively.

Modern Understanding of Hepatitis

Hepatitis is a term used to describe inflammation of the liver. The liver is a vital organ responsible for filtering toxins from the blood, producing bile to help absorb fats and fat-soluble vitamins, and regulating the levels of glucose, cholesterol, and proteins in the bloodstream.

There are several causes of hepatitis, including viral infections, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), alcoholic liver disease, autoimmune disorders, and exposure to toxins or certain medications.

There are several types of viral hepatitis, including hepatitis A, B, and C. 
  • Hepatitis A is a highly contagious liver infection caused by the hepatitis A virus. It is typically spread through contaminated food or water and can cause symptoms such as fatigue, fever, abdominal pain, nausea, and jaundice. The hepatitis A vaccine is available and is recommended for those who are at higher risk of exposure to the virus.
  • Hepatitis B is a serious liver infection caused by the hepatitis B virus. It is primarily spread through contact with contaminated bodily fluids, such as blood or semen, and can also be transmitted from mother to child during birth. Chronic hepatitis B infection can lead to serious liver problems, such as cirrhosis and liver cancer. The hepatitis B vaccine is available and is recommended for all newborns and for those who are at higher risk of exposure to the virus.
  • Hepatitis C is a serious liver infection caused by the hepatitis C virus. It is primarily spread through contaminated blood and can cause chronic liver disease, cirrhosis, and liver cancer. There is currently no vaccine for hepatitis C, but effective antiviral treatments are available for those who have been diagnosed with the infection.
Symptoms of hepatitis can range from mild to severe and may include jaundice, fatigue, nausea, loss of appetite, abdominal pain, dark urine, clay-colored stools, joint pain, muscle aches, itchy skin, fever, and a rash. In some cases, hepatitis can lead to serious liver damage and eventually to liver failure, cirrhosis, and even liver cancer. Diagnosis of hepatitis typically involves blood tests, liver function tests, and imaging studies such as ultrasound, CT scan, or MRI. In some cases, a liver biopsy may be necessary to determine the extent of liver damage. It is important to seek medical attention if you experience symptoms of hepatitis. Early treatment can help prevent liver damage and improve outcomes. Additionally, taking steps to prevent the spread of viral hepatitis, such as practicing safe sex and avoiding sharing needles, is essential for maintaining good liver health.

Causes of Hepatitis

- Viruses: Several different viruses can cause hepatitis, including hepatitis A, B, C, D, and E. These viruses are typically spread through contact with contaminated blood or bodily fluids, such as through unprotected sex, sharing of needles, or from mother to child during childbirth.
- Alcohol: Long-term alcohol abuse can cause inflammation of the liver, leading to alcoholic hepatitis. This condition can progress to liver cirrhosis and liver failure if left untreated.
- Medications: Some medications can cause liver inflammation, which can lead to drug-induced hepatitis. Examples include antibiotics, antivirals, and certain pain medications.
- Autoimmune disorders: In some cases, the body's immune system can attack the liver, causing autoimmune hepatitis.
- Toxins: Exposure to certain toxins, such as industrial chemicals, can cause liver inflammation and hepatitis.
- Metabolic disorders: Rare genetic disorders, such as hemochromatosis and Wilson's disease, can cause a buildup of certain substances in the liver, leading to liver damage and inflammation.
- Other infections: Certain other infections, such as mononucleosis and cytomegalovirus, can cause hepatitis as a secondary effect.

Treatments for Hepatitis

The treatment of hepatitis depends on the cause and severity of the infection. For viral hepatitis, there are specific treatments available depending on the type of virus. In general, the goals of treatment are to reduce liver inflammation and damage, prevent liver failure and cirrhosis, and ultimately, reduce the risk of liver cancer.

- Antiviral medications: Antiviral medications are available to treat hepatitis B and C. These medications work by reducing the amount of virus in the body, which can help to reduce inflammation and prevent liver damage.
- Immune system modulators: For some people with chronic hepatitis B, immune system modulators such as interferon or peginterferon can help to boost the immune system and fight off the virus.
- Liver transplant: In cases of severe liver damage or liver failure, a liver transplant may be necessary. This involves replacing the diseased liver with a healthy liver from a donor.
- Lifestyle changes: Making certain lifestyle changes can also help to manage hepatitis. These may include avoiding alcohol, which can further damage the liver, and eating a healthy diet to support liver function.

It is important to work closely with a healthcare provider to determine the most appropriate treatment plan for hepatitis. Regular monitoring of liver function and virus levels may also be necessary to track the effectiveness of treatment and adjust the plan as needed. In some cases, a combination of treatments may be used to achieve the best possible outcome.


Yellowing of skin and eyes (jaundice)
Dark colored urine/pee
Loss of appetite
Abdominal pain
Joint pain and stiffness
Weight loss

Confirmation Tests

- Blood test
- CT scan

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