ID: 174
Category: Autoimmune Disease
CreatedBy: 1
UpdatedBy: 1
createdon: 15 Feb 2023
updatedon: 24 May 2023

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Author: Khoa Tran
Published Feb 15, 2023
Updated May 24, 2023

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Hashimoto's Disease (struma Lymphomatosa)

Etymology and Pronunciation

struma (struma)
struma - Latin for "swelling" or "tumor"

lymphomatosa (LIM-foh-muh-TOH-suh)
-oma - Greek suffix for "swelling" or "tumor"
lympha - Latin for "clear water" or "lymph"
lympho- - Greek prefix for "lymph"

History of Hashimoto's Disease (struma Lymphomatosa)

Hashimoto's disease is an autoimmune disorder that affects the thyroid gland. It was first discovered by a Japanese doctor named Hakaru Hashimoto in 1912. Dr. Hashimoto observed a group of patients with an enlarged thyroid gland (goiter), and upon biopsy, he noticed that their thyroid tissue was being attacked by lymphocytes (immune cells). He then named this condition "struma lymphomatosa" which was later renamed Hashimoto's thyroiditis.

The discovery of Hashimoto's disease was made possible by advancements in technology during that time. Dr. Hashimoto was able to use histological staining techniques to examine the thyroid tissue of his patients and identify the lymphocyte infiltration. He also used a microscope to closely examine the thyroid tissue and identify the characteristic changes.

Since then, further technological advancements have enabled the diagnosis and monitoring of Hashimoto's disease. Blood tests are now used to measure thyroid hormone levels, and the presence of antibodies against the thyroid gland. Imaging techniques such as ultrasound and radioactive iodine uptake tests can be used to assess the size and function of the thyroid gland.

Modern Understanding of Hashimoto's Disease (struma Lymphomatosa)

Hashimoto's disease is a condition that affects the thyroid gland, a small gland located in the neck that produces hormones that regulate metabolism. In Hashimoto's disease, the immune system attacks the thyroid gland, causing inflammation and damage over time. As a result, the thyroid gland may not function properly and produce enough hormones, leading to a condition called hypothyroidism.

Common symptoms of Hashimoto's disease may include fatigue, weight gain, sensitivity to cold, dry skin, hair loss, constipation, and depression. In some cases, individuals with Hashimoto's disease may not experience any noticeable symptoms, making the condition difficult to diagnose.

Diagnosis of Hashimoto's disease involves a physical exam, blood tests to check thyroid hormone levels and the presence of antibodies, and a thyroid ultrasound to evaluate the size and structure of the gland.

Causes of Hashimoto's Disease (struma Lymphomatosa)

Hashimoto's disease is an autoimmune disorder that causes the body's immune system to attack the thyroid gland. The exact cause of Hashimoto's disease is not known, but there are several factors that may contribute to its development. 

One of the primary causes of Hashimoto's disease is genetics. People who have a family history of autoimmune disorders, such as rheumatoid arthritis, type 1 diabetes, and lupus, may be more likely to develop Hashimoto's disease. 

Other factors that may contribute to the development of Hashimoto's disease include hormone imbalances, environmental factors, and viral infections. Exposure to environmental toxins, such as cigarette smoke, can also increase the risk of developing Hashimoto's disease. 

Additionally, some experts believe that a lack of iodine in the diet may contribute to the development of Hashimoto's disease, although this theory is still debated by medical professionals. Overall, there is still much research to be done to fully understand the causes of Hashimoto's disease.

Treatments for Hashimoto's Disease (struma Lymphomatosa)

Hashimoto's disease is an autoimmune disorder where the immune system attacks the thyroid gland. The disease affects hormone production and can cause hypothyroidism, which means an underactive thyroid. The aim of Hashimoto's disease treatment is to relieve the symptoms of hypothyroidism, prevent the progression of the autoimmune process, and treat any complications that may arise.

The most common treatment for Hashimoto's disease is hormone replacement therapy. This therapy involves taking synthetic thyroid hormones to replace the hormones that the thyroid gland no longer produces. The drug levothyroxine is the treatment of choice as it provides the necessary hormones that are missing due to hypothyroidism. The dosage of the medication is tailored to each patient according to their needs and blood test results.

It is also essential to monitor patients' hormone levels regularly and adjust the medication dosage accordingly. Some individuals might require changes to their medication dosage, particularly when their metabolism changes, such as during pregnancy or if they change their diet.

In addition to hormone replacement therapy, it is essential to address other factors that could trigger the autoimmune response, such as stress, diet, and nutritional deficiencies. Some nutritional supplements, such as selenium, vitamin D, or zinc, could improve thyroid function, reduce inflammation, and enhance the immune system.

In conclusion, Hashimoto's disease treatment focuses on relieving the symptoms of hypothyroidism, preventing the progression of the autoimmune process, and treating complications that may arise. This can be achieved through hormone replacement therapy and other complementary and dietary measures. The goal is to attain balance in the thyroid gland and improve the quality of life for the individual.

Lifestyle Changes

Hashimoto's disease, also known as chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis, is an autoimmune disorder affecting the thyroid gland. While lifestyle changes cannot cure the condition, they can help manage the symptoms and improve overall well-being. Here are some lifestyle changes that may be beneficial for individuals with Hashimoto's disease:

- Follow a balanced diet: Consuming a well-rounded diet that includes a variety of whole foods, such as fruits, vegetables, lean proteins, whole grains, and healthy fats, can support overall health. Some people with Hashimoto's disease find it helpful to reduce or eliminate gluten, as it may contribute to inflammation. It may also be beneficial to limit processed foods, added sugars, and artificial additives.
- Manage stress: Chronic stress can worsen symptoms and trigger autoimmune flares. Implement stress management techniques such as deep breathing exercises, meditation, yoga, mindfulness practices, regular exercise, or engaging in hobbies that promote relaxation.
- Prioritize sleep: Aim for sufficient sleep of 7-9 hours per night. Establish a consistent sleep schedule, create a conducive sleep environment, and practice good sleep hygiene habits to support optimal rest.
- Regular exercise: Engaging in regular physical activity can help improve mood, reduce stress, boost energy levels, and support overall well-being. Choose activities that you enjoy and that align with your fitness level. Consult with your healthcare provider before starting an exercise program, especially if you have any specific health concerns or limitations.
- Maintain regular medical check-ups: Regularly monitoring thyroid function and working closely with your healthcare provider is essential for managing Hashimoto's disease. They can monitor your hormone levels, adjust medication dosages if necessary, and provide guidance based on your individual needs.
- Consider supplements: Some individuals with Hashimoto's disease may benefit from certain supplements, such as selenium, vitamin D, or omega-3 fatty acids. However, it's important to consult with your healthcare provider before starting any new supplements to ensure they are safe and appropriate for you.

Nutrional Changes

While individual dietary needs can vary, here are some general nutritional recommendations that may be beneficial for individuals with Hashimoto's disease:

- Focus on nutrient-dense foods: Emphasize whole, unprocessed foods that provide a wide range of nutrients. Include plenty of fruits, vegetables, whole grains, lean proteins, and healthy fats in your diet. This can help support immune function, reduce inflammation, and provide essential vitamins and minerals.
- Consider an anti-inflammatory diet: Some people with Hashimoto's disease find that following an anti-inflammatory diet can help manage symptoms. This involves minimizing or avoiding foods that may trigger inflammation, such as processed foods, refined sugars, fried foods, and excessive amounts of omega-6 fatty acids (found in vegetable oils). Instead, prioritize foods rich in omega-3 fatty acids (found in fatty fish, chia seeds, and flaxseeds) and anti-inflammatory spices like turmeric and ginger.
- Be mindful of iodine intake: Iodine is an essential nutrient for thyroid function. However, excessive iodine intake can potentially worsen symptoms in individuals with Hashimoto's disease. It's generally recommended to avoid high-dose iodine supplements and be cautious with iodine-rich foods like seaweed and iodized salt. Discuss your iodine needs with your healthcare provider or a registered dietitian who can provide personalized guidance.
- Consider gluten reduction: Some individuals with Hashimoto's disease may benefit from reducing or eliminating gluten from their diet. Gluten is a protein found in wheat, barley, and rye and may contribute to inflammation and autoimmune responses in susceptible individuals. Consult with your healthcare provider or a registered dietitian to determine if gluten reduction is appropriate for you.
- Support gut health: A healthy gut can contribute to overall well-being and immune function. Include fiber-rich foods like fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and legumes to support a diverse gut microbiome. Consider incorporating fermented foods (e.g., yogurt, kefir, sauerkraut) and probiotic supplements (under medical guidance) to support gut health.
- Adequate vitamin D: Vitamin D deficiency is common in individuals with Hashimoto's disease. Ensure adequate sun exposure (within safe limits) and consider vitamin D supplementation if necessary. Consult with your healthcare provider to determine the appropriate dosage.
- Monitor caffeine and alcohol intake: Some individuals with Hashimoto's disease find that excessive caffeine or alcohol consumption can exacerbate symptoms or interfere with thyroid medication absorption. It may be beneficial to limit or moderate the intake of caffeine-containing beverages and alcohol.
- Individualized approach: Hashimoto's disease is highly individualized, and what works for one person may not work for another. It's essential to work with a healthcare provider or a registered dietitian who specializes in thyroid health to develop a personalized nutrition plan that takes into account your specific needs, preferences, and medical history.

Remember, nutrition recommendations can vary based on individual factors, so it's important to consult with a healthcare professional or a registered dietitian who can provide personalized guidance and support for managing Hashimoto's disease through diet and nutrition.


Enlargement of the tongue
Swelling of the thyroid (goiter)
Hair loss
Brittle nails
Heavy or irregular periods
Joint pain and stiffness
Muscle stiffness
Muscle Weakness

Confirmation Tests

- TSH (Thyroid stimulating hormone) test
- Blood test

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