CLINACASE

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ID: 135
Category: Inflammation
CreatedBy: 1
UpdatedBy: 1
createdon: 06 Feb 2023
updatedon: 05 Apr 2023

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Author: Khoa Tran
Published Feb 06, 2023
Updated Apr 05, 2023

Table of contents

Colitis

Etymology and Pronunciation

Colitis (koh-LYE-tis)
kolon Greek for "colon"
-itis Latin for "inflammation"

History of Colitis

In the early 19th century, the French physician Jean Cruveilhier provided the first detailed description of ulcerative colitis, a type of colitis that causes inflammation and ulcers in the lining of the colon. However, it wasn't until the mid-20th century that doctors gained a deeper understanding of colitis and its various forms.

One of the key figures in the history of colitis research was Burrill B. Crohn, a gastroenterologist who, along with colleagues Leon Ginzburg and Gordon D. Oppenheimer, described a new type of inflammatory bowel disease that would later be named after him: Crohn's disease. This type of colitis affects not only the colon but also other parts of the digestive tract, and is characterized by inflammation and the formation of deep ulcers.

In the 1950s and 1960s, other types of colitis were identified, including radiation colitis, which occurs after exposure to radiation therapy, and infectious colitis, which is caused by infection with bacteria, viruses, or parasites.

Modern Understanding of Colitis

Colitis is a type of Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) that is characterized by chronic inflammation of the large intestine, including the rectum and colon. The exact cause of colitis is unknown, but it is believed to be a combination of genetic, environmental and immune system factors.

Symptoms of colitis may include abdominal pain, diarrhea, rectal bleeding, urgency to defecate, frequent bowel movements, weight loss, fatigue, anemia, fever, dehydration, joint pain, skin rashes, eye inflammation and even liver disease. The severity and location of inflammation can vary, and colitis can be classified into different forms such as proctitis, proctosigmoiditis, left-sided colitis, and pancolitis.

Other types of Colitis

- Ulcerative colitis: This is a type of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) that causes inflammation and ulcers in the lining of the colon and rectum. The symptoms of ulcerative colitis include abdominal pain, diarrhea, rectal bleeding, and weight loss. Treatment options include medication, dietary changes, and surgery. - Infectious colitis: This type of colitis is caused by an infection, usually from bacteria, viruses, or parasites. Symptoms include diarrhea, fever, and abdominal pain. Treatment options depend on the specific cause of the infection and may include antibiotics, antiviral medication, or antiparasitic medication. - Ischemic colitis: This type of colitis occurs when blood flow to the colon is reduced, usually due to a blockage in a blood vessel. Symptoms include abdominal pain, diarrhea, and rectal bleeding. Treatment options depend on the severity of the condition and may include medication, surgery, or lifestyle changes. - Microscopic colitis: This type of colitis is characterized by chronic inflammation of the colon that can only be seen under a microscope. Symptoms include chronic diarrhea, abdominal pain, and weight loss. Treatment options include medication and dietary changes. - Allergic colitis: This type of colitis occurs in infants and is caused by an allergic reaction to proteins found in cow's milk or soy formula. Symptoms include bloody stools, diarrhea, and abdominal pain. Treatment options include switching to a hypoallergenic formula and medication. - Pseudomembranous colitis: This type of colitis is caused by overgrowth of Clostridium difficile bacteria and characterized by the formation of yellowish plaques or "pseudomembranes" on the lining of the colon.

Treatments for Colitis

Treatment for colitis varies depending on the severity and location of inflammation. Medical therapy may include 5-aminosalicylates (5-ASA), corticosteroids, immunomodulators and biologic therapy such as Infliximab, Adalimumab, or Vedolizumab. In severe cases, surgery such as a colectomy or ileoanal pouch procedure may be necessary.

Diet can play an important role in managing colitis. A low-residue diet and a high-fiber diet may help alleviate symptoms. Probiotics and lifestyle changes such as exercise can also help reduce inflammation and improve overall health.

It is important to work with a healthcare provider to determine the best course of treatment for colitis. With proper treatment, many people with colitis are able to lead healthy, active lives.

Symptoms

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Rectal bleeding
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Urgency to defecate
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Frequent bowel movements
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Anemia
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Joint pain and stiffness
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Skin rashes
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Eye inflammation
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Blood in stool
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Abdominal pain
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Diarrhea
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Loss of appetite
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Fatigue
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Fever
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Weight loss

Confirmation Tests

- Colonoscopy
- Biopsy

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